Nutrient requirements are unique to an individual and needs to be personalised

---------------------Please remember the total fee paid = 1. The laboratory fee + 2. The practitioner reporting fee)-------------------------

Please note carefully

  1. Genetic Analysis involves assessing your dietary inputs and providing you with a detailed report
     
  2. A personalized diet is NOT a part of this Genetic Analysis fee

A one-size-fits-all approach is doomed to failure if a number of factors are not taken into consideration:

  1. Genetic Mutations - through DNA Analysis can determine whether higher or lower amounts of micronutrients are needed for a particular individual
     
  2. Slow & Fast Metabolism - An individual may be a fast or slow metaboliser of a dietary compound such as caffeine. For example, the CYP1A2 gene will determine whether you are a fast or slow metaboliser of caffeine and if you are a slow metaboliser, caffeine may stay in the system for a prolonged time. Conflicting data has emerged in the past because genetic factors were not taken into consideration to fine-tune the data. Meta analysis has shown a 60% increased risk of heart attack with 4 or more cups of coffee a day1. So genetic analysis may be a lifesaver in someone prone to cardiovascular disease due to risk factors or family history as we can test for caffeine metabolism and at least get rid of one significant risk factor by modifying caffeine intake. 
     
  3. Responders vs Non-Responders - This is a critical concept in nutrition and it is the reason why so many research articles sometimes show a particular response while others fail to do so. Some people in terms of weight management may respond to a high fat, high protein diet while others may respond to a high carbohydrate, low-fat diet. This is all genetically determined. This is also the reason why some people can have an adequate Vitamin-A intake because they can effectively convert the pro-vitamin beta carotene to Vitamin-A while others may not be able to and thus suffer from Vitamin-A deficiency. In other words a one-size-fits-all approach is now a dark-ages way of thinking of dietary advice. 
     
  4. An Individual's Need for Higher Intakes of Micronutrients - An individual may require higher amounts of folic acid, Vitamin D, Omega-3's and a range of other micronutrients due to genetic and other individual factors.
     
  5. Biotransformation Factors - An individual may have abnormal biotransformation pathways making it difficult for them to rid themselves of the multitude number of toxic compounds encountered in daily life from pesticides and herbicides in food or toxic fumes from vehicles, petrol fumes at the bowser or emanating from industrial complexes to phthalates in common perfumes or scents and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the home from polyester carpets to vinyl lounges, mattresses, and other fabrics in the home.There are 1000's of toxic compounds we are all exposed to on a daily basis and if we don't deal with these effectively, we can become ill over time. Many of these compounds are neurotoxic. 
     
  6. Personalising Nutrient Intake Through Individual & Cultural Food Preferences - We need to look at personalisation through the filter of individual food preferences or food as determined by cultural factors.
     
  7. Exercise & Physical Demands - An individual may require a higher caloric or nutrient intake due to physically demanding work such as manual labour or due to high intensity exercise on a regular basis.
     
  8. Chronic Illness & Medications - We need to modify nutrient intake if someone is suffering from a chronic illness e.g. a low sodium or protein intake in someone with chronic kidney disease to supplementation of individuals if they are taking nutrient depleting medications such as the need need for extra Vitamin B12 when using Metformin a common diabetic medication or an increased need for Folic Acid when using Methotrexate a commonly used immunosuppressive used in inflammatory disorders such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. 
     
  9. Age Matters - The elderly need a far greater caloric and protein intake to prevent muscle loss (sarcopenia) which if not attenuated, can lead to frailty and falls. An individual younger than 65 needs a lower protein intake as a high protein intake in the wrong age bracket has been associated with a 4-fold increased risk of cancer2.
     
  10. Prenatal Stage, Pregnancy & Breastfeeding - Physiological states like pregnancy or breastfeeding demand specific intakes of nutrients and this may also be affected by genetic mutations.

Clinical Context

So you can see that a one-size-fits-all approach is extremely naive and highly dangerous for an individual that needs nutrients and supplementation placed into clinical context. Anything less than a big-picture approach will result in poor outcomes and this is why an integrative approach in medicine is vital using an optimised nutritional foundation for any planned pharmaceutical or surgical intervention. 

 


References

  1. Cornelis, M.C., El-Sohemy, A., Kabagambe, E.K. and Campos, H., 2006. Coffee, CYP1A2 genotype, and risk of myocardial infarction. Jama, 295(10), pp.1135-1141.
  2. Levine, M. E., et al. (2014). "Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population." Cell Metabolism 19(3): 407-417.